Fortifying is a tactic for responding to SLR through strengthening the existing flood protection and sea defence infrastructure system for cities. It ranges from the development of revetment, dyke, wave breaker, tide gate, to massive giant seawalls. It also includes technological application to brace natural processes so that the existing system of cities can be protected, such as through the beach nourishment, dune restoration and mangrove conservation. Although hard structural interventions appear to be a straightforward response to flooding and rising sea level, it is questionable for its effectiveness in the long run and risks the unintended negative externality of transferring the floods to surrounding coastline towns and cities.


Accommodate is another tactic in responding to SLR through a substantial adjustment of the physical and socio-economic system of cities. The idea is to familiarize all decision-makers, related stakeholders and particularly affected people with new facts and values required for living with water. Some examples of this tactic include elevated housing and infrastructure and the development of new building codes. Accommodation in the sea cities concept sheltersfor all residents living in the affected area without having to relocate or move them to another area.



Release is one of sea cities tactics which is built on an assumption that cities are no longer able to accommodate the pressure of SLR. Efforts either to protect or make adjustments may exceed benefits gained than leave the sea to intrude the land. In other words, cities must be sacrificed and their physical, social and economic systems relocated to higher inland terrains that are away from the sea. Though this tactic seems obvious, several negative consequences may follow, such as the crowding and encroachment of inland regions, as well as abandonment of valuable historically and culturally significant architecture, buildings and infrastructure in the end angered locations that would take decade store build.



Floating is the last sea cities tactic, which is somewhat atypical, considering the possibility of shifting all systems of a city from the terrestrial to the aquatic. Some might see this tactic is too radical. However, this alternativ eshould not be under es timated. Boat house and floating neighbourhood housing units in the Netherlands are a small-scaleand partial example of this tactic.