Jakarta’s Responses to the Issue of Sea Level Rise

1990s

The impact of climate change, especially in terms of sea level rise, was an issue since 1990s but it did not attract the attention of the government and policy makers. The impacts of sea level rise on the coastal areas of Jakarta gained less consideration.

2007

There was a big flood in 2007 in Jakarta. According to the Ministry of National Development Planning (Bappenas) of the Republic of Indonesia, the floods inundated about 60% of the city in just 24 hours, killed 79 people, displaced nearly 600,000 and caused a total loss of nearly USD 590 million (Bappenas, 2007). The issue of flood management was finally raised through the Jakarta Coastal Defense Study (JCDS), which was commissioned by the Ministry of Public Works.

2013

Anothermajorflood hit Jakarta in 2013 andagainit has changedthegovernment'sresponsetothe problem. The followingyear, theGovernmentof Indonesia launchedthe National Capital IntegratedCoastal Development (NCICD) Masterplan.

NCICD is a joint project between the Indonesian government and the Netherlands, through JCDS funding from the Dutch government. NCICD aims to solve the problems of flooding and the sinking of Jakarta through the construction of a giant sea wall located 2.5 km north of Jakarta's coast. The project also aims to achieve co-benefits such as providing space for new housing and real estate projects, creating a freshwater retention lake that can supply clean water to Jakarta and reducing Jakarta's traffic problems through the addition of a ring road above the seawall. In addition, the sea wall will provide a new icon for Jakarta, as the overall design will be modeled on Garuda, the mythical eagle which is Indonesia's national symbol. This project is relatively large because it will involve the development of land reclamation covering an area of 1250 hectares, and a reservoir covering an area of 7,500 hectares.